Appl Phys Lett 93(21):212105. In Ti/TiO 2−x /Au-based RRAM [28], the induction of platinum (Pt) nano-crystals within the thin TiO 2−x results in an enhanced uniformity of the RRAM cell. This variability becomes worse as the compliance limit (i.e. The Pt nano-crystals limit the switching effect into regions with high oxygen vacancy generation probability which results in improved uniformity. Wang SY, Huang CW, Lee DY, Tseng TY, Chang TC (2010) Multilevel resistive switching in Ti/Cu xO/Pt memory devices. Bard AJ, Faulkner LR, et al. The top electrode and the resistive switching layer are deposited either using atomic layer deposition (ALD) or physical vapor deposition (PVD). A form of non-volatile memory in which a pulse voltage is applied to a metal oxide thin film, creating massive changes in resistance to record ones and zeros. Publication San Rafael, California (1537 Fourth Street, San Rafael, CA 94901 USA) : Morgan & Claypool, 2016. This work was supported by the Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia, through the Graduate Assistant (GA) Scheme and the Yayasan Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (YUTP)-Fundamental Research Grant under the cost center 015LC0-245. Nat Nanotechnol 8(1):13. a Endurance cycles of HfOx-based RRAM at different SET voltage and cell size b with different thickness (T5= 2 nm, T20= 10 nm) at 2.5 V set voltage. The CF is divided into a number of mesh grids and at each point of the mesh grid the temperature is calculated to describe the rupture of CF. For realizing hardware-implemented neuromorphic computing paradigms, two methods are suggested: one among the strategies mimics the structure and working mechanism of biological neural networks while the other method works on accelerating the existing artificial neural network (ANN) algorithms. Resistive Random-Access Memory (ReRAM) technology has been viewed as one of the most reliable non-volatile memories that have are emerging in markets. The parameters are defined as [135]: These equations govern the physical transformation of the device during SET and RESET transition, thus essentially controlling the CF growth and rupture. {\text{Sinh}} \bigg({\frac{qa_{h}\gamma V}{L.k_{b}.T}}\bigg) $$, $$ g_{|t+\Delta t} = F \Big[ g_{|t}, {\frac{dg}{dt}} \Big] + \delta_{g}\times\tilde{X}(n)\Delta t, n = {\frac{t}{T_{GN}}} $$, $$ \delta_{g} (T) = {\frac{\delta^{\tiny{0}}_{g}}{\bigg\{ 1+\exp \Big({\frac{T_{\text{crit}}- T}{T_{\text{smith}}}} \Big) \bigg\}}} $$, $$ c_{p} {\frac{dT}{dt}} = V(t).I(t) - k(T-T_{\text{bath}}) $$, $$ I(g,v) = I_{\tiny{0}}.\exp\bigg({{\frac{-g}{g_{\tiny{0}}}} }\bigg){\text{Sinh}} \bigg({\frac{V}{V_{\tiny{0}}}}\bigg) $$, $$ {\frac{dn_{D}}{dt}} = \Delta \times \bigg(D_{s}.\Delta_{n\tiny{D}}- \mu v n_{D} \bigg) + G $$, $$ D_{s} = {\frac{1}{2}} \times a^{2} \times f_{e} \times \exp \bigg({\frac{- E_{a}}{k_{B}T}} \bigg) $$, $$ v = a_{h} \times f \times \exp \bigg({\frac{- E_{a}}{k_{B}T}} \bigg) \times {\text{Sinh}} \bigg({\frac{q a_{h}E}{k_{B}T}} \bigg) $$, $$ G = A \times \exp \bigg({\frac{- (E_{a}-ql_{m}E)}{k_{B}T}} \bigg) $$, $$ {\frac{dx}{dt}} = a \times f\times \exp \bigg({\frac{- E_{i}-\gamma Z_{e}V}{k_{B}T}} \bigg) $$, $$ {\frac{dx}{dt}} = a \times f\times \exp \bigg({\frac{- E_{h}}{k_{B}T}} \bigg) {\text{Sinh}} \bigg({\frac{ a_{h}Z_{e}E}{k_{B}T}} \bigg) $$, $$ {\frac{dx}{dt}} = a \times f\times \exp \bigg({\frac{- \Delta E_{r}}{k_{B}T}} \bigg) $$, $$ {\frac{dx}{dt}} = -a \times f_{e}\times \exp \bigg({\frac{- E_{a}-\alpha_{a} Z_{e}E}{k_{B}T}} \bigg) $$, $$ {\frac{dw}{dt}} = \bigg(\Delta w + {\frac{\Delta w^{2}}{2w}} \bigg) \times f_{e}\times \exp \bigg({\frac{- E_{a}-\gamma Z_{e}v}{k_{B}T}} \bigg) $$, $$ i = i_{0}. The formation of the CF and its corresponding widening with an increase in Icc is the attributed mechanism of multilevel per cell (MLC) in compliance current (Icc) mode as depicted schematically in Fig. IEEE J Electron Devices Soc 6:341–345. Meena JS, Sze SM, Chand U, Tseng TY (2014) Overview of emerging nonvolatile memory technologies. For the trilayered structure, the … A comparison of TiN and Ru bottom electrode in the Ta/Ta2O5/TiN RRAM shows that the main cause of endurance degradation is due to the reaction of oxygen ions with TiN electrode. These emerging memory technologies aim to integrate the switching speed of SRAM, storage density comparable to that of DRAM, and the non-volatility of Flash memory, thus become very attractive alternatives for future memory hierarchy. 26 Real-World Use Cases: AI in the Insurance Industry: 10 Real World Use Cases: AI and ML in the Oil and Gas Industry: The Ultimate Guide to Applying AI in Business. RRAM (abbreviaiton) Derived terms . 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